|Building the power house: recent advances in mitochondrial studies through proteomics and systems biology.
|Year of Publication
|T.D. Vo; B.Ø. Palsson
|PLoS Comput Biol
|The emerging field of systems biology seeks to develop novel approaches to integrate heterogeneous data sources for effective analysis of complex living systems. Systemic studies of mitochondria have generated a large number of proteomic data sets in numerous species, including yeast, plant, mouse, rat, and human. Beyond component identification, mitochondrial proteomics is recognized as a powerful tool for diagnosing and characterizing complex diseases associated with these organelles. Various proteomic techniques for isolation and purification of proteins have been developed; each tailored to preserve protein properties relevant to study of a particular disease type. Examples of such techniques include immunocapture, which minimizes loss of posttranslational modification, 4-iodobutyltriphenylphosphonium labeling, which quantifies protein redox states, and surface-enhanced laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry, which allows sequence-specific binding. With the rapidly increasing number of discovered molecular components, computational models are also being developed to facilitate the organization and analysis of such data. Computational models of mitochondria have been accomplished with top-down and bottom-up approaches and have been steadily improved in size and scope. Results from top-down methods tend to be more qualitative but are unbiased by prior knowledge about the system. Bottom-up methods often require the incorporation of a large amount of existing data but provide more rigorous and quantitative information, which can be used as hypotheses for subsequent experimental studies. Successes and limitations of the studies reviewed here provide opportunities and challenges that must be addressed to facilitate the application of systems biology to larger systems.